Industrial Flooring Design Points
Comparison of Investment and Performance
Design is a vital part of the poor design will lead to problems, and reasonable design can avoid the problem. People often do not give enough attention to the design of industrial flooring, usually in the new engineering technical requirements and project budget books to be included in the "interior decoration" item, almost always wait until the whole structure or concrete pouring is completed before considering this A problem, and in the renovation project and maintenance works, the floor program is often installed in the equipment or factory test after the start to consider. This concept may be related to infrastructure investment, but if the problem arises due to underestimation of the ground design and delays in production, the problem is worthy of attention.
Basic design basis:
a, end-user requirements;
b, expected or actual site conditions:
c, is a new project or repair and maintenance works.
The construction period can not meet the planned schedule
In any project, for users, an important goal is to shorten the engineering cycle. Whether it is a new project or renovation project, the economic requirements are expected to put into production as soon as possible. This means that in the early stages of the project should be clear the project cycle and feasible construction time.
Only floor systems that meet the following requirements may be considered:
a, the coating can be in the new or short condensate cement on the ground directly on the construction;
b, the entire system can be completed quickly, each coating interval is short;
c, surface layer curing speed, in a short time to withstand traffic. Good floor technology prevents damage to the coating due to wetting of the base surface. (In general, when the reactive resin material is applied to the surface of the cementitious substrate, the moisture content of the substrate shall not be greater than 6%, otherwise the coating will be destroyed, and the initial small bubbles will appear within a short time after construction and Gradually expand the development, and finally make the coating completely flaked .This is known as "infiltration blister" damage must be avoided)
Use installation and construction risk to a minimum
The floor system supplier shall provide the best quality assurance in order to ensure that the selected product can be truly constructed and required to meet the required performance requirements:
a, pre-project diagnosis;
b, in the construction process and the completion of the floor to assess.
Design life is the most basic requirements of the floor design, but also in the choice of the first floor to consider the issue:
a, plant design life is how much?
2 years, 5 years, 10 years or 20 years?
b, is it feasible or necessary for regular maintenance?
The choice of ground plan must meet the expected design life or the desired maintenance-free time period.
Static and dynamic loads applied to the ground during construction, production, alteration and maintenance must be considered. On the one hand the surface coating must be able to withstand the required load, on the other hand must be clear, only in the substrate (such as concrete structure board or cement mortar surface) also meet the requirements, the coating can play its role. In some cases, the overhang needs to be reinforced by pasting the glass.
There are tiny moving joints, such as construction joints, etc., in my company ground treatment program, you can use the elastic seal coating method to deal with. Structural slits (or septums) that exist in the basement concrete floor must be left at the seams of the floor. At the same time we also recommend the highest point in the ramp and the wall and the equipment around the set of moving joints.
Easy to maintain the floor, in addition to be able to seamlessly protect the concrete from corrosive liquids and mechanical wear damage must also meet the clean, bright and durable and other requirements. Architects and customers' design ideas always take into account both functional and subjective standards. Through the use of special construction methods, different aspects of the requirements can be met at the same time.
In accordance with the layout of the factory, as long as possible, the drainage tank is often designed outside the traffic area. The floor should have a large enough slope to drain the liquid as soon as possible into the tank, and the slope in the tank is usually larger. If it is necessary to pass in the tank, it must be on the groove and the grille cover to give enough attention, because these places the possibility of problems is relatively large. When there is a serious liquid erosion, the Fulaiide construction program will use the passivated groove wall, with enough angle steel fixed.
Sumps and pipes
Today, people use steel or polypropylene made of sump, we must pay attention to take measures to ensure that the outer wall of the seal.
Traffic and mechanical wear
Design to be considered impact resistance and resistance to mechanical wear and other physical requirements. Often, the greatest wear occurs in the following areas: forklift passages, some specific areas, which require special handling.
The floor design should not only take into account the impact of the single chemicals on the ground, but also the potential chemical reactions, and what if there is a mixture of chemicals on the ground?
What is the thickest or most dilute concentration after splashing or after evaporation?
High temperatures often increase the activity of chemicals - especially strong acids and strong bases.
Temperature is also an important factor in some potential splash areas such as production, warehouses and shipping areas.
The dramatic change in temperature is the main cause of the destruction of traditional industrial flooring. It is important to consider not only the temperature at which the machine is operated and the temperature of the product in the production process, but also the temperature of the adjacent area. In some areas, frequent activities such as high pressure cooking, cooking, disinfection or freezing, etc., are often in extreme conditions, and these areas require special treatment.
Pedestrian area on the degree of non-slip requirements depends on the environment of dry and humid, consider the surface requirements of the ground, should pay attention to its slip resistance. However, the rough ground is difficult to achieve clean and hygienic requirements, so both must be balanced. Therefore, it is recommended to design the floor according to different non-slip requirements, and meet other requirements.
Impact and point load
Where the goods are often stored or handled in certain areas, such as production lines, warehouses, loading terminals, etc., the design of the floor must be suitable for the conditions of work. Cargo trucks, trays and other objects loaded with the movement will produce a pressure load, if not to the local load design reservation, it is prone to damage. It is also important to ensure that the stress produced is not higher than the pressure on the entire floor system material.
Many modern industries, such as medicine, cosmetics, food, beverage, chemical and electronics industries, have higher hygiene requirements, and these industrial processes require similar "clean room" working conditions, such as the ground must be completely clean, No cracks and right angles, easy to clean, and can meet other requirements, such as resistance to chemical corrosion and resistance to wear.
Today's environment requires floor coatings to be impermeable to protect concrete and groundwater from dripping water and contaminants. Occasionally, impermeable floors are only used to prevent the penetration of chemical contaminants with chemical contaminants such as metalworking, galvanizing, food processing (dairy, meat, vegetables), and other Chemicals such as cleaning agents, steam and machinery.
The ability to cross the cracks
This is related to structural loads, especially dynamic loads. What is the effect of vibration and wear on the floor? What is the importance of avoiding cracks? In certain areas of the project, such as in outdoor parking, in areas where there is corrosive liquids, or in the "clean room" area, the floor finish must have dynamic crack bridging capability. Or do stress joints or stay active joints to prevent subsequent cracking.
The damping of noise
Industrial epoxy flooring is often used in hall, corridor, exhibition room and sales area, but the standard here is quite different from traditional industrial floor. Unlike the high-load floor, there are relatively different external requirements in the floor of the office, the hospital, etc., and the use of the floor is usually walking or standing. Because of this, we recommend the use of flexible flooring system, the system must have a non-slip and feel comfortable features.
To determine the foot of the floor of the cold and warm is very different and very subjective. In addition to the room temperature and floor temperature, the thermal conductivity of the floor is the most important factor. The lower the value of the thermal conductivity (0.5W / mk), the more obvious the feeling. In addition to this indicator, the subjective influence of color can not be underestimated (using warm or cool).
Industrial flooring should have stable mechanical properties throughout its life. A criterion for judging whether this requirement is met is whether the floor has moderate or high levels of UV stability. Optical radiation, especially the high energy of ultraviolet radiation on the resin floor has a strong destructive effect, leading to its fading or performance degradation.
Resistance to chair roller pressure
The diameter of the roller on the office chair is very small, thus creating a large local load on the floor, which creates an extra pressure on the floor when the chair is moving. To choose the floor system that can withstand this load.
Everyone experiences the color and color of the reflected light on the physical and emotional impact of people, working in a harmonious color environment, will be conducive to a person's thinking and life atmosphere, the other colors can also be used to distinguish between different work A mark of a region, such as a traffic area or direction indication.
Requirements and treatment of ground foundation
Base surface requirements:
1, the requirements of the cement base surface firm, strong, can not afford the shell, put an end to the mortar from the shell phenomenon, the best concrete layer and mortar leveling layer with pouring; if the first pouring concrete layer, requires the mortar layer thickness of not less than 4cm, forklift It is required to be thicker.
2, the requirements of the surface can not afford sand, good hardness, no cement powder phenomenon. Requires A, high quality cement. B, the new pouring cement mortar layer to fully maintenance.
3, the requirements of the ground leveling is not greater than the thickness of the coating requirements; cement base surface flat, no uneven, honey pimple, cement pimple.
4, the surface dry, water content of less than 6%, remember the cement ground maintenance period before entering the construction, can not rinse with water or mop cleaning.
5, the surface of the PH value should be in the 6.0 ~ 8.0; no oil on the ground, other paint, latex paint, bubble gum and other residues.
6, the slope should meet the design requirements, allow the deviation of 2% of the slope, and not more than 30mm.
Base inspection and preparation
Regardless of the old and new plant, the construction base is the basis of the floor. Detailed inspection and breakage is extremely important to determine how to handle the construction base. The bonding between the coating and the construction base must be durable, which requires that the base surface be dry, strong and clean, free of residues and other contaminants before construction.
Measure compressive strength
Industrial floor compressive strength should not be less than 25N / mm2 (3500psi), in order to meet certain load-bearing requirements, may also require higher strength, it is recommended to use a bouncer to do a number of points of measurement, or the best sample Its compressive strength measured.
Determine the bond strength
The concrete base is usually a low strength layer of cement slurry formed within a few millimeters of its surface. Hot and cold reaction shrinkage, temperature changes or repeated load-bearing, and stress, will lead to lower bonding strength. The minimum bonding strength should not be less than 1.5N / mm2 (210psi).
Base surface moisture
Measure the moisture level of the base surface, because the cement base surface only in the humidity of not more than 6% of the degree of construction to the coating, so the humidity measurement is particularly important. The best way to determine the rising humidity is "rubber pad experiment". (At least 1m × 1m polyethylene film with adhesive tape on the concrete surface) to be at least 24 hours to take away. This determines the amount of condensate.
Adopt climate factors to ignore the climatic factors can lead to serious defects in the floor, such as insufficient bonding strength, watermark, empty, irregular surface and hardening is not sufficient.
So the following data must be measured several times per day during construction:
a, ambient temperature (temperature); b, the construction base surface temperature; c, dew point.
Prepare and clean up
Contamination caused by grease, oil or organic / inorganic acid / or cement surfaces, if not completely removed, will affect the bonding properties of any floor after completion. Therefore, the surface should be mechanically cleaned up to the strong inner layer and inspected by measuring the bond strength.
Ground treatment program:
The key to the ground coating process is the treatment of the coating surface, it is related to the coating layer can be firmly attached to the ground, the coating layer is smooth, my company attaches great importance to the base surface treatment.
1, in order to achieve the perfect effect of painting, I suggest: not yet leveling the ground requires the leveling of cement. On this basis, the epoxy coating layer of the surface effect will be more smooth, bright, life will increase.
2, until the cement layer after drying (about 28 days), with a grinding machine on the ground for the overall polished, so that the surface of the cement pores all open.
3, for the wet ground, through the water. Dry, sun light, hot air blower, burn, make it dry to meet the construction requirements.
4, for the old paint on the ground (such as the emery of the ground, the old paint the ground), first with the mechanical eradication of the old paint, and then the poor cement, vermicelli ground treatment at the same time on the ground hair. After this treatment of the ground, the old cement and emery surface is not clear, and the formation of coarse surface, thereby enhancing the adhesion of the new coating to improve the service life of the coating floor.
Factory wall paint color design and match
The color of the factory plant must meet the needs of safe production, in general, should be based on the nature of the factory to choose:
① tall and spacious plant suitable for the use of darker colors, lower plant, you can use more light.
② According to the nature of the factory, machinery, piping, try not to use muddy color, so as not to affect the staff's attention.
③ take into account the natural light or artificial lighting, too strong light will be dazzling, if the window with light, dazzling situation will be reduced, the floor with dark to absorb light.
④ indoor temperature: such as the higher temperature, available cool color, and the temperature is low, then with warm color.
⑤ for the safety of the factory, the door generally with eye-catching colors, lines can be used to decorate lines, and can increase the appearance.
⑥ wall and ceiling, usually with inconspicuous neutral color or white.